Unclear and composite sacred text with owners' mark


Trismegistos ID: 738322

Source Description


Cut in the North wall of a rock-cut chamber (dimensions unknown).


Inscribed at least three times.


Hand 1: height unknown; nothing is known about this hand.


Hand 2: height unknown; larger letters than hand 3; slanting sigma.


Hand 3: height unknown; dropped bar alpha, tall beta, lunate omega and epsilon or sigma.

Place of Origin



Textpart a: probably second half of the fourth century B.C.; b.2: perhaps third century B.C.; b.1 and 3-6: perhaps first century B.C. (context, lettering)

Later recorded Location

Seen by the Chieti mission (O. Menozzi) between 2002 and 2005 in situ.

Last recorded Location

Seen and photographed in 2009 by S. Marini.

Present Location

Not seen by IGCyr team.

Text constituted from

Transcription from previous editor, with support of Menozzi's description and Marini's photograph (CDL).


Ferri, 1923 , n. 19, whence SEG , 9.345; Menozzi, 2008 , pp. 41-42, fig. 15. Cf. Forbes, 1956 , whence SEG , 16.872; Marini, 2013 , p. 321, pl. XXXIV; Menozzi, 2015 , pp. 64-67, fig. 8.


(hand 1) 〚Ἡρώω[ν], Ζ[η]ν[ό]ς. Ε[ὐ]μέ[νιδ]ε[ς]〛
(hand 3) «Ἅδε̣ προβώμιος (hand 2) Λ̣ύσιος [---]  (hand 3) τὸ ἄντρον{ι} καὶ Ἀμμω̣ν̣[ί]ω̣ 5καὶ Ο[---]  καὶ Αγ++ [---] »


a (read from Menozzi's diplomatic transcription; not seen by others)

b.1 Ἅδε̣ προβώμιος : Ferri, 1923  ἅδε προβώμιος

b.2 Λ̣ύσιος : Ferri, 1923  [---] σιος

b.4 Ἀμμω̣ν̣[ί]ω̣ : SEG  Ἀμμω[.]  +

French translation

a) 〚(Lieu de culte) des Héros, de Zeus. Euménides〛.

b) « [---]  en avant de l'autel. A Lysis (appartient) cette grotte ainsi qu'à Ammônios, à O [---]  et à Ag [---] ».

English translation

a) 〚(Cult area) of the Heroes, of Zeus. Eumenides.〛

b) « [---]  before the altar. Belonging to Lysis (is) this cave as well as to Ammonios, to O [---]  and to Ag [---] ».

Italian translation

a) 〚(Luogo di culto) degli Eroi, di Zeus. Eumenidi.〛

b) « [---]  davanti all'altare. Appartenente a Lysis (è) questa grotta come pure ad Ammonios, ad O [---]  e ad Ag [---] ».


The complex history of the different stages of this inscription is much confused. We follow Menozzi's chronology, although it is not clear whether a) was really cut at the very place where b) was inscribed later on. If so, a) was first cut and erased, then b) was overstruck. However it is clear both from Ferri's description and drawing and from Menozzi's photograph that b) was cut by at least two different hands. Line 2 probably stood by itself and was later on incorporated into a larger text.

At b.1 the third letter should be an epsilon, although it seems to be incomplete. If the reading is right the demonstrative at the feminine singular would be related to a subaudible θυσία, as we know from IGCyr016700, ll. 61 and 68, that some sacrifices should be done 'in front of the altar'.

About the three lower lines Ferri gave neither transcription nor comment. The assumption that Ammon was worshipped here (so Fabbricotti, 2007 , p. 100 and again Menozzi twice) seems to be a misinterpretation of part of line b.4: we consider much probable that the three personal names, each of them preceded by καί, were added under the previously inscribed name while line 1 was added above. If so, it allows to read the successive lines as a whole. Our translation relies on that assumption. Menozzi's latest analysis ( Menozzi, 2015 ) would read the three καί in relation with the erased divine names, which is impossible in view of the lettering.

The present reconstruction, although provisional, would be consistent with the history of the tomb/cave as constantly proposed by Menozzi.

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