Report and accounts of extinguishing reprisals rights against Cyrenaeans


Trismegistos ID: 738485

Source Description


Cyrene Museum, 535.

Cracow Archaeological Museum, MAK/AS/2401.


Seven fragments of a white marble panel, thicker at left than at right, with a moulding (now lost) above; six fragments are joining, forming fragment a (0.387; 0.49;0.025 at left, 0.015 at right), which itself had lost the upper left angle before the publication); a seventh non-joining fragment is b (0.07; 0.116;0.017); the total amounts approximately to the measures found in Oliverio's papers (0.4; 0.65;0.018).


Inscribed on front face with six lines of verse (GVCyr033), immediately followed by the present text.


0.005 to 0.009; dissymmetrical nu, slanting mu and sigma, middle-size omicron.

Place of Origin

Cyrene : Sanctuary of Apollo .


Ca. 335 B.C. (lettering, prosopography)


Probably the whole, but at least five fragments of part a were found by G. Oliverio in 1929 at Cyrene : Sanctuary of Apollo , in the Eastern part of lower terrace, so-called Agora of the Gods (see commentary).


One small fragment, adjacent to a, is said to have been found in 1956 by R.G. Goodchild in the Port of Cyrene, later Apollonia : Apollonia seashore .


Fragment b was possibly gathered in Cyrenaica during World War II by a member of the Polish Independant Carpathian Rifle Brigade.

Later recorded Location

Fr. Chamoux in 1946 saw only the largest part of fragment a (from line 6 on) and in 1947 the same fragment recomposed in its actual condition in Shahat : Cyrene Museum .

Later recorded Location

G. Pugliese Carratelli saw in 1960 the main fragment a recomposed at the same place.

Later recorded Location

D. Morelli saw the small fragment adjacent to a in 1960 at Sūsah : Apollonia Museum .

Later recorded Location

C. Dobias-Lalou and A. Laronde observed in 1976 both the Apollonia small fragment and the main a fragment from Cyrene and were able to check their belonging together.

Later recorded Location

C. Dobias-Lalou saw again in 2010 the fragment a, pieced together with the small fragment from Apollonia, in Shahat : Cyrene Museum .

Last recorded Location

P. Nowakowski saw the fragment b in 2012 at Cracow : Cracow Archaeological Museum .

Text constituted from

Transcription from stone and Nowakowski supplementary publication (CDL).


SECir , 103 (photo), and Daux, 1963 , whence SEG , 20.716; Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977 added to fragment a the small fragment previously published as SECir , 207 (whence Reynolds, 1976 , 55); also Bousquet, 1978 , whence SEG , 27.1194; Bravo, 1980 , pp. 741-742 and pp. 918-926, whence SEG , 30.1783; Dobias-Lalou, 2000 , pp. 187-188; Nowakowski, 2013 , published fragment b.

Cf. Anti, 1929 , p. 429; Oliverio, 1932-1933 , p. 102; Pugliese Carratelli-Oliverio, 1961 , p. 3; Garlan, 1965 ; Masson, 1975 , p. 713; Laronde, 1987 , pp. 120-121, 149-60, 252; Charneux, Bulletin Épigraphique , 1988.594, and Moretti, 1986-1988 , pp. 321-322, whence SEG , 38.1879 and SEG , 38.1881; P.M. Fraser in McKechnie, 1989 , pp. 117-118, with 137 footnote 146, whence SEG , 39.1717; Gasperini, 1996 , whence SEG , 46.2186; Lazzarini, 1996 , p. 184, whence SEG , 46.2198; Zimmermann, 1996 , whence SEG , 46.2330; Łajtar, 1999 , p. 163, n. 130; Dobias-Lalou, 2003 , whence SEG , 53.2029; Laronde-Lefèvre, 2009 , whence SEG , 59.1910.


fragment a
(preceded on the stone by GVCyr033) [Ὅσσα κατὰ τῶν πολιατᾶ]ν σῦλ[α] διελύ⸢θ⸣ η καὶ ἀπονωμαὶ [ἀπέδοθεν], [αἳ φυλάσσο]νται α[ἱ] μὲν ἐν ταῖς πόλισσιν (vac. 2) ὑπὸ τῶν δαμιεργῶν κατὰ τὸς νόμος, αἱ δὲ ἐν τῶι ἱαρῶι (vac. 2) τῶ Διὸς τῶ Ὀλυμπίω ὑπὸ τῶ̣ν Ἑλλανοδικᾶν, ἐν Δελφοῖς ὑπὸ 5 τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων, ἐν τῶι ἱαρῶι τῶ Διὸς τῶ Λυκαίω ὑπὸ τῶν ἱαρομναμόνων, ἐν Ἀθάν̣αις ὑ̣π[ὸ] τῶν θε̣σμοθετᾶν· ποτ̣[ε-γράφεν?] δ̣ὲ π̣οτ̣ὶ̣ [τ]ὰς ἀπονωμὰς καὶ τοὶ τὰ σῦλα ἐγκαλέσαντες [κ]αὶ τὸ πλῆθος τῶγ χρημάτων καὶ τοὶ συμπρεσβεύσαντες ἀπὸ τᾶς ἁμᾶς πόλιος· Αἰγλάνωρ Ἀλεξάνδρω ἐς Κλείτορα τᾶς (vac. 3) 10Ἀρκαδίας ὑπὲρ (vac. 8) τῶν ἐν Τρυγείωι ἀπολομένων ὑπὸ Τεισιλάω, καὶ τό τε σῦλον ἐλύσαμες ὀκτὼ ταλάντων καὶ φυγὰν Κλειτόριοι κατέγνον Τεισιλάω καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἐδά-μευσαν καὶ χηρ[ω]θ̣έντα αὐτὸν ὑπὸ Στυμφαλίων ἔγδοτον (vac. 2) ἔδωκαν, Στυμφάλιοι δὲ ἀπέκτη̣ναν· ἐς Mεγάλαν Πόλιν σὺν 15Καρνήδαι τῶι Σπονδάρχω σῦλα τὰ ποτ’Ἀπολλόδωρον τὸν (vac. 3) αὐλωιδὸν μνᾶν Χ Χ Χ Χ, ποτὶ Νικίαν τὸμ φαρμακοπώλαν (vac. 3) μνᾶν 𐅠 𐅠 𐅠 𐅝· ἐν Τεγέαι ποτὶ Δαμαιθίδαν τὸν Ὀρεσθάσιον μ(νᾶν) (vac. 2) Χ̣· ἐν τῶι ἱαρῶι τῶ Διὸς τῶ Λυκαίω ποτί Χάρωνα τὸγ χωλὸν μ(νᾶν) Χ̣· ἐν Ἄλι ποτὶ τὸς περὶ Φ̣ίλωνα οἳ ἐ̣γένοντο Φιλόπαιδα τ̣αλάν- 20των δέκα πέντε· ἐμ Μεσσάναι πο̣τὶ Δεινίαν μ(νᾶν) 𐅠 𐅠 𐅝· ἐν Ἄργει ποτὶ Θωροπίδαν τ̣ὸν [στ]ραταγὸν μ(νᾶν) 𐅝· ἐγ Κορίνθωι̣ [σὺ]ν Λύσι τῶι Ἐπικλεῦς ποτὶ Σιμωνίδαν τ̣αλάντων τρι[ῶν]· [ἐν] Ἀθάναις [ποτὶ] Δαμάτριον τὸν ῥήτορα μ(νᾶν) 𐅝̣· ἐμ Μάλωι [ποτὶ ...] μένη [τὸν ὀλυμ]πιονίκα̣ν παλαιστὰν τριῶν τ[αλάντων]· [ἐν ..]  χ Ε 25 [c. 5]  [ποτ' Αἰ]σ̣χύ[λο]ν δυῶν ταλάντων [---]  [---] ΛΙ σῦλον διελύθ̣[η ---]  [---]  [Λ]εβυστρα[τ ---]  [---]  [δι]ε̣λύθ̣[η ---]  - - - - - -

fragment b
- - - - - - (vac. 1 line) [---]  [ποτὶ Πε]λλανῆς [---]  ευς καὶ (vac. 2?) [---]  [τ]ὸ̣ν Ἀμφισσῆ [---]  [τ]α̣λάντων 5 [---]  μ(νᾶν) 𐅠 Ζ 𐅃 (vac. 2?) [---]  [μ(νᾶν)] 𐅠 > > > 𐅃 – – – [---] Υ̣Π̣Ο(vac. 1) - - - - - - -


a.1 [ὅσσα κατὰ τῶν πολιατᾶ]ν :  [c. 18] Ν : SECir , Laronde, 1987  [---] Ν || Bravo, 1980 , Dobias-Lalou, 2000  ἀπονωμαί : SECir  ἀπον⸢ο⸣ μαί (so all other editors)

a.2  [ἀπέδοθεν, αἳ φυλάσσο]νται : SECir  [---] [φυλάσσο]νται (so all editors but ); Bravo, 1980  [ἐτελέσθησαν, αἳ φυλάσσο]νται :  [---] [καταγράφο]νται :  [---] [ἀναγράφο]νται :  [ἀπεδόθησαν, αἳ τηροῦ]νται :  [κατεβλήθησαν, αἳ τηροῦ]νται :  [ἐξετείσθησαν, αἳ τηροῦ]νται

a.5 SECir  τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων :  τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων :  Ἀμφικτιόνων

a.6-7 Daux, 1963  ποτ̣[ε]|[γράφεν?] : SECir , Bravo, 1980  ποτ̣[ιγρά?]|[φονται?] :  ποτ̣[ε]|[γράφεν?] :  ποτ̣[ε]|[τέθεν?]

a.7 Bravo, 1980 , Dobias-Lalou, 2000  ἀπονωμάς : SECir  ἀπον⸢ο⸣ μάς (so by all editors)

a.8 SECir  τῶγ χρημάτων καὶ τοὶ συμπρεσβεύσαντες : Chamoux, 1953 , Laronde, 1987  τῶγ χρημάτων · καὶ τοὶ συμπρεσβεύσαντες

a.8-9 SECir  ἀπὸ | τᾶς ἁμᾶς πόλιος · Αἰγλάνωρ : Chamoux, 1953 , Laronde, 1987  ἀπὸ | τᾶς ἁμᾶς πόλιος Αἰγλάνωρ

a.13 Laronde, 1987  χηρ[ω]θ̣έντα : SECir  χηρω̣[θ]έντα

a.17 Daux, 1963  Δαμαιθίδαν : SECir  Δαματ̣ρίδαν

a.18 Daux, 1963  Χ̣ : SECir  [.] 

a.19 Laronde, 1987  Ἄλι : SECir , Daux, 1963  Ἆλι || Daux, 1963  Φιλόπαιδα : SECir  φιλόπαιδας̣ : McKechnie, 1989  φιλόπαιδ⸢ε⸣ ς̣ (Fraser's reading)

a.19-20 Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977  τ̣αλάν|των : SECir  [ταλάν]|των (fragment independently published as SECir, 207)

a.21 Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977  [σὺ]ν Λύσι : SECir  ν̣αυσί

a.22 Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977  τ̣αλάντων : SECir  [τ]αλ̣άντων || Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977  τρι[ῶν· ἐν] Ἀθάναις : SECir  [---]  Ἀθάναις

a.23 Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977  [ποτὶ ...] μένη : SECir  [---] μένη

a.24 Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977  [τὸν ὀλυμ]πιονίκα̣ν : SECir  [...] [ὀλυμ]πιονίκα̣ν || Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977  τ[αλάντων· ἐν ..]  χ Ε : SECir  τ[αλάντων ---]  ( [---] Χ̣Ε read in SECir, 207)

a.24-25 χ Ε | [c. 5]  [ποτ' Αἰ]σ̣χύ[λο]ν : Bousquet, 1978  [ἐ]ν̣ ̣Ε̣ὐε|[σπερίσσι ποτ Αἰ]σχύ[λ]ον

a.25 [c. 5]  [ποτ' Αἰ]σ̣χύ[λο]ν : Daux, 1963  ΣΧΥ[ρ]ΟΝ (ἱσχυρόν adjective or personal name) : SECir  [c. 10] Σ̣ΧΥ[..] Ν

a.27 Masson, 1975  [Λ]εβυστρα[τ] : SECir  ΕΒΥΣΤΡΑ[---] 

a.28 Daux, 1963  [---]  [δι]ε̣λύθ̣[η ---]  : SECir  [---]  +ΛΥΟ̣[---]  (followed by all editors)

b.0a (vac. 1 line) (no end of written line has a space of more than 3 characters left at line's end) : Nowakowski, 2013  [---]  (vac. 6?)

French translation

a) [Voici tous] les droits de représailles [contre les citoyens] qui ont été liquidés et les restitutions qui [ont été réglées, lesquelles sont archivées] les unes dans les cités par les démiurges conformément aux lois, les autres dans le sanctuaire de Zeus Olympien par les Hellanodiques, à Delphes par les Amphictions, dans le sanctuaire de Zeus Lykaios par les hiaromnamons, à Athènes par les thesmothètes; [ont été inscrits], outre les restitutions, (les noms de) ceux qui ont invoqué des droits de représailles et le montant des sommes, ainsi que (les noms de) ceux qui ont participé à l’ambassade de notre cité : Aiglanor fils d’Alexandros, à Kleitôr (10) d’Arcadie au sujet de ceux qui périrent à Trygeion du fait de Teisilaos : nous avons liquidé le droit de représailles pour un montant de huit talents, les Kleitoriens prononcèrent une peine de bannissement contre Teisilaos, confisquèrent ses biens et, quand les Stymphaliens eurent mis la main sur lui, ils le leur livrèrent et les Stymphaliens le mirent à mort; à Mégalopolis avec Karnèdas fils de Spondarkhos, droits de représailles liquidés envers Apollodôros le joueur d’aulos pour un montant de 4000 mines, envers Nikias le marchand de drogues pour un montant de 700 mines; à Tégée envers Damaithidas d’Oresthasion pour un montant de 1000 mines; au sanctuaire de Zeus Lykaios envers Kharôn le boiteux pour un montant de 1000 mines; à Elis, envers le cercle de Philôn dit Philopais pour un montant de 15 talents; (20) à Messène, envers Deinias pour un montant de 500 mines; à Argos envers Thôropidas le stratège pour un montant de 100 mines; à Corinthe avec Lysis le fils d’Epiklès envers Simônidas pour un montant de 3 talents; à Athènes envers Dèmètrios l’orateur pour un montant de 100 mines; à Mèlos envers  [---] ménès le lutteur olympionique, pour un montant de trois talents; à  [---]  envers [Ai]skhylos pour un montant de deux talents;  [---]  le droit de représailles a été liquidé  [---]  [avec?] Lébystratos  [---]  a été liquidé  [---] 

b)  [---]  [envers] les gens de Pellène  [---]  (Untel fils de)  [---] ès et (Untel fils d’Untel)  [---]  (envers) l’homme d’Amphissa  [---] , pour un montant de  [---]  talents;  [---]  (envers Untel pour un montant d’au moins) 255 mines;  [---]  (envers Untel pour un montant d’au moins) 238 mines;  [---] 

English translation

a) [These are all] the reprisal rights [against citizens] that were extinguished and the restitutions that [were settled, all of which are filed], some of them in the cities by the damiergoi in compliance with the laws, the others in the sanctuary of Zeus Olympios by the Hellanodikai , at Delphi by the Amphictyons, in the sanctuary of Zeus Lykaios by the hiaromnamones , at Athens by the thesmothetai ; [were inscribed], beside the restitutions, (the names of) those who invoked reprisal rights and the amounts of money, as well as (the names of) those who took part in the mission sent by our city: Aiglanor son of Alexandros, to Kleitor (10) of Arcadia about those who perished at Trygeion because of Teisilaos: we estinguished the reprisal right for an amount of eight talents, the Kleitorians passed sentence of banishment against Teisilaos, confiscated his goods and, when the Stymphalians had seized him, they handed him over and the Stymphalians killed him; to Megalopolis with Karnedas son of Spondarchos, reprisal rights estinguished toward Apollodoros the aulos-player for an amount of 4000 mines, toward Nikias the drug-seller for an amount of 700 mines; at Tegea toward Damaithidas from Oresthasion for an amount of 1000 mines; in the sanctuary of Zeus Lykaios toward Charon the lame for an amount of 1000 mines; at Elis, toward the group of Philon so-called Philopais for an amount of 15 talents; (20) at Messena, toward Deinias for an amount of 500 mines; at Argos toward Thoropidas the general for an amount of 100 mines; at Corinth with Lysis son of Epikles toward Simonidas for an amount of 3 talents; at Athens toward Demetrios the orator for an amount of 100 mines; at Melos toward  [---] menes the wrestler who winned at the Olympian games, for an amount of three talents; at  [---]  toward [Ai]schylos for an amount of two talents;  [---]  the reprisal right has been extinguished  [---]  [with?] Lebystratos  [---]  was extinguished  [---] 

b)  [---]  [toward] the Pellenians  [---]  (So-and-so son of)  [---] es and (So-and-so son of So-and-so)  [---]  (toward) the Amphissaean  [---]  for an amount of  [---]  talents;  [---]  (toward So-and-so for an amount of at least) 255 mines;  [---]  (toward So-and-so for an amount of at least) 238 mines;  [---] 

Italian translation

a) [Questi sono tutti] i diritti di rappresaglia [contro cittadini] che sono stati liquidati e le restituzioni che [sono state regolate, le quali sono archiviate] alcune nelle città dai damiergoi in accordo con le leggi, le altre nel santuario di Zeus Olympios dagli Hellanodikai , a Delfi dagli Anfizioni, nel santuario di Zeus Lykaios dagli hiaromnamones , ad Atene dai tesmoteti; [sono stati iscritti], oltre alle restituzioni, (i nomi di) coloro che hanno invocato dei diritti di rappresaglia e l'ammontare delle somme, come pure (i nomi di) coloro che hanno preso parte all'ambasceria inviata dalla nostra città: Aiglanor figlio di Alexandros, a Kleitor (10) in Arcadia a proposito di coloro che morirono a Trygeion a causa di Teisilaos: abbiamo liquidato il diritto di rappresaglia per l'ammontare di 8 talenti, i cittadini di Kleitor hanno condannato all'esilio Teisilaos, hanno confiscato i suoi beni e, quando i cittadini di Stymphalos l'hanno catturato, l'hanno consegnato a loro e i cittadini di Stymphalos l'hanno ucciso; a Megalopolis con Karnedas figlio di Spondarchos, diritti di rappresaglia liquidati nei confronti di Apollodoros il suonatore di aulo per l'ammontare di 4000 mine, nei confronti di Nikias il venditore di droghe medicinali per l'ammontare di 700 mine; a Tegea nei confronti di Damaithidas da Oresthasion per l'ammontare di 1000 mine; nel santuario di Zeus Lykaios nei confronti di Charon lo zoppo per l'ammontare di 1000 mine; a Elide, nei confronti del gruppo di Philon detto Philopais per l'ammontare di 15 talenti; (20) a Messene, nei confronti di Deinias per l'ammontare di 500 mine; ad Argo nei confronti di Thoropidas lo stratego per l'ammontare di 100 mine; a Corinto con Lysis figlio di Epikles nei confronti di Simonidas per l'ammontare di 3 talenti; ad Atene nei confronti di Demetrios l'oratore per l'ammontare di 100 mine; a Melos nei confronti di  [---] menes il lottatore che vinse agli agoni olimpici, per l'ammontare di tre talenti; a  [---]  nei confronti di [Ai]schylos per l'ammontare di due talenti;  [---]  il diritto di rappresaglia è stato liquidato  [---]  [con?] Lebystratos  [---]  è stato liquidato  [---] 

b)  [---]  [nei confronti] dei cittadini di Pella  [---]  (il tale figlio di)  [---] es e (il tale figlio del tale)  [---]  (nei confronti) dei cittadini di Anfissa  [---] , per l'ammontare di  [---]  talenti;  [---]  (nei confronti del tale per l'ammontare di almeno) 255 mine;  [---]  (nei confronti del tale per l'ammontare di almeno) 238 mines;  [---] 


This stone has a thrilling history: first mentioned by Oliverio, 1932-1933 in 1933, with citation of ll. 2-6, it was published only in 1963 by Pugliese Carratelli (SECir ) who found it deprived of the left upper part, the loss of which he was able to determine from a sketch of the general outline in Oliverio's papers. Moreover two fragments belonging to the same panel were identified later on: one fragment, given separately in the same publication, care of Morelli, as found in 1960 on the shore of the port of Cyrene (later on Apollonia) and joined to the main one by C. Dobias-Lalou and A. Laronde ( Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977 ) is edited here as part of a; the second fragment, here b, had been brought to Cracow and was identified and published later by Nowakowski, 2013 . It seems now plausible that all fragments of the thin panel were found at once by Oliverio, who testified that it was already split into several fragments, and that the two erratic fragments were lost during the moving of archaeological items to Tripolitania during World War II. If so, some were probably picked up by people who did not belong to the Antiquities Department. The 'Apollonia fragment' was already absent from the Museum of Cyrene in 1946 when Chamoux made a unpublished copy available in his archive. Moreover, Pugliese Carratelli-Oliverio, 1961 , p. 3 mentions a description of the inscription read by Oliverio at the 1st International Congress of Epigraphy (Amsterdam 1938), where he clearly said that the recomposition of the found fragments produced a panel that was complete at all sides but at the bottom. We may thus be sure that a large upper left angle has been lost for ever during World War II. The relevant part of the text was restored by Pugliese Carratelli from Oliverio's quotation of 1933.

Anti wrote that the stele was found in 1929 inside the Strategeion. In fact it should rather have been exposed on some external wall in view of all. There may have been some confusion because Oliverio in his first mentions called this inscription 'Stele della Vittoria', a name which is not appropriate to its content. Conversely, a victory is mentioned in the dedication of the Strategeion (which is IGCyr098500) and the report of excavations for year 1929 (now available at Luni, 2014 , p. 129) shows that the building itself was called 'Monumento della Vittoria' by the excavators, amongst whom Anti and Oliverio. As the whole area below the sustaining wall separating the Sanctuary from the Fountain Terrace was excavated during that summer, we may suppose that the stele was exposed either on a wall of the Strategeion or on the adjacent sustaining wall, along with other official documents such as Ptolemy's VIII will (IGCyr0011200).

The verse heading (GVCyr033) seems to honor a man whose name does not appear in the rest of the text and whose action enhanced the city's prestige. We may guess either that he had given money to extinguish reprisal rights against Cyrenaean citizens listed in the text or that he had himself lead the embassies to the different places.

For a study of the juridic problems of reprisal rights, see Bravo, 1980 , pp. 741-742 and pp. 918-926; for the organization of the different trips and date of the inscription, see Laronde, 1987 , pp. 120-121, 149-60, 252; for the publication of the documents see Laronde-Lefèvre, 2009 .

The different meaning of σῦλα λύειν and the general interpretation of the document ascribed to Fraser in a short footnote by McKechnie, 1989 , p. 137 footnote 146, but never published by himself, does not seem convincing.

At lines a.24-25, Bousquet's reading seems very hazardous, considering the faint vestiges of letters; furthermore the idea that an embassy was sent to Euesperides, another city of Cyrenaica, seems very strange.

The publication of the new fragment kept at Cracow gives additional places visited by embassies; we think that b had at top a space left, so that a supplementary trip might have been registered afterwards, differing in some sense from the preceding ones. But the missing parts are too large to allow any certainty.

The Athenian orator Damatrios mentioned at line a.23 was very probably Demetrios of Phalerae, see Dobias-Lalou-Laronde, 1977 .

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